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Three Ways to Destroy the Universe

Three Ways to Destroy the Universe

One day the universe will die. But why? And how? And will the universe
be dead forever? And how do we know that? First of all, the universe is expanding. And not only that, the rate of
its expansion is accelerating. The reason: dark energy. Dark energy is a strange phenomenon that
scientists believe permeates the universe. Until 1998 we thought that the universe
must work a bit like a ball that you throw into the sky. The ball moves up, but at some point
it has to come down again. But the expansion of the universe
is actually speeding up. That’s like throwing a ball up
and watching it fly away faster and faster and faster. Where is this acceleration coming from? Well, we don’t know, but
we call it “dark energy”. Einstein thought of it first and
then decided it was stupid. Now, astrophysicists have
decided it is plausible. Trouble is, this is all very theoretical,
and we don’t actually know what the properties of dark energy are. But there are various theories and they
lead us to three scenarios for the end of the universe. One: the Big Rip. Since its birth, the universe
has been expanding. For unknown reasons new spaces
created everywhere equally. The space between galaxies expands,
so they move apart. The space inside galaxies also expands,
but here, gravity is strong enough to keep them together. In the Big Rip scenario, the expansion
accelerates up to a point where space expands so fast that gravity
can’t compensate for this effect anymore. The result is a Big Rip. At first, only large structures like
galaxies are torn apart, since space between the single objects
expands very fast. Next, big bodies like black holes,
stars, and planets die. Their gravity isn’t strong enough to keep
them together, so they dissolve into their components. In the end, space would expand
faster than the speed of light. Atoms would now be affected,
and they would just disband. Once space is expanding faster than light,
no particle in the universe can interact with any other particle anymore. The universe would dissolve into countless
lonely particles that won’t be able to touch anything else in a strange,
timeless universe. Hmm, and you thought you felt lonely! Two: Heat death or a Big Freeze. In a nutshell, the difference between
the Big Rip and heat death is that in a heat death scenario matter stays
intact and is converted over an incredibly long but finite period
of time into radiation, while the universe expands forever. But how does this work?
Let’s talk about entropy. Every system tends towards the
state of highest entropy, like when we have a latte macchiato. Initially, it has different regions, but
over time, they will cool down and disintegrate,
until it’s uniform. And this also applies to the universe. So, while the universe gets
bigger and bigger, matters slowly decays and spreads out. At some point, after lots of generations
of stars, all the gas clouds necessary to form stars will be exhausted,
so the universe will turn dark. The remaining suns will die;
black holes will slowly degenerate
and evaporate over trillions of years due to what’s known as Hawking radiation. When this process is complete, only a
dilute gas of photons and light particles remains, until even this decays. All activity in the universe ceases
at this point; entropy is at its maximum and
the universe is dead forever. Unless… theoretically, it might
be possible that after an incredibly
long amount of time, there might be a spontaneous entropy
decrease as a result of something called “quantum tunneling”, leading to
a new Big Bang. Three: Big Crunch and Big Bounce. This is the most uplifting scenario. If there is less dark energy than we think
or it decreases over time, gravity will be the dominating force in the
universe one day. In a few trillion years, the rate of
expansion of the universe will slow down and stop. After that, it reverses. Galaxies will race at each other,
merging as the universe becomes smaller and smaller. Since a smaller universe also means
a hotter universe, temperatures rise everywhere all at once. One hundred thousand years before the Big
Crunch, background radiation would be hotter than the surfaces of the
most stars, which means that they would be cooked from the outside. Minutes before the Big Crunch happens,
atom cores are ripped apart, before supermassive black holes
devour everything. Finally, all black holes would emerge into
a supermassive mega-black hole that contains the entire
mass of the universe, and in the last moment before
the Big Crunch it would devour the universe,
including itself. The Big Bounce theory states that this
has happened a lot of times and that the universe goes through
an infinite cycle of expansion and contraction. Well, wouldn’t that be nice? So what will actually happen to
the universe in the end? At the moment, heat death seems the most
likely, but we at Kurzgesagt hope that this “dead forever” stuff is wrong and the
universe will start over and over again. We don’t know for sure either way, so
let’s just assume the most uplifting theory is true. By the way, we have a Twitter account. Subtitles by the community

Reader Comments

  1. Video title: Three ways to destroy the universe
    Thanos : oh shit imma be on the list rubs his hands
    After video is finished

  2. Just what I needed to know. Thanks Kurzgesgat! If you could tell me how to harness the and contain the power of black holes next video, that would be very helpful!

  3. It is pretty obvious that universe is a simulation. We have:
    A speed limit
    A distance limit
    A force limit
    A size limit

    We have
    Glitches like black holes
    Glitches like dissapearing people
    And weird things like the bermuda triangle and stuff

  4. I scroll to the comments on pretty much any video on YouTube nowadays and there’s no real discussions or observations, it’s all just who can rehash the same 4 memes in a slightly different way to get a lot of upvotes. Have 12 year olds taken over the internet? Everything is just a meme of a meme in a never ending cycle that makes me cringe

  5. So, why do I like Kurzgesagt? Because almost in every f*cking video they say our Universe will die.
    That really motivates me ✔️

  6. Well the big bounce proves time travel doesn’t exist. If people were to time travel we wouldn’t be comfortably reading this comment

  7. Don’t worry everyone,

    For one thing, this won’t happen for trillions and trillions of years.

    And by the time it happens, we could find a way to travel to another universe.

  8. Funny how in years to come due to increases in our knowledge of the universe. This video and our current explanation of science may be seen as completely invalid and a load of rubbish 🧐

  9. What if Universe is on infinite Big Bounce loop and there are always civilizations rising but they don't have enough time to develop space exploration and then Universe collapses and it starts all over again

  10. “And the heaven We created with might, and indeed We are (its) expander.” (Quran 51:47)

    “Have those who disbelieved not considered that the heavens and the earth were a joined entity, then We separated them, and made from water every living thing? Then will they not believe?” (Quran 21:30)

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