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The History and Future of Everything — Time

The History and Future of Everything — Time


Time makes sense in small pieces. But when you look at huge
stretches of time, it’s almost impossible to wrap
your head around things. So let’s start small with minutes, hours, days. You probably spent the last 24 hours
mostly sleeping and working, with some coffee in there somewhere. Please watch less TV. Now let’s look at 2013:
relatively unnoticed, Hitler’s bodyguard died at the age of 96 while in June, Edward Snowden
started the NSA scandal. Moving back a bit, the 21st century is
still pretty young and largely shaped by the attacks on 9/11 that ultimately
led to the third Iraq war. Oh, and Facebook and smartphones
took over our lives. But we’re just getting started: Let’s back up further! The 20th century has seen its share
of conflicts too. After two devastating World Wars, the Cold War lasted for almost the
whole second half of it. An average human lifespan
covers most of this stuff as well as the birth of the internet
and the beginning of the information age. The oldest living person on Earth
is currently Misao Okawa, who was born in 1898, which means that
her birth was closer to Napoleon ruling Europe
than to the current day. The last 500 years of human history brought enormous changes
to our lifestyles: Industrialisation gave rise to new
ideas like communism, farmers became workers
and knowledge became easier to distribute. The theory of evolution changed how we
saw ourselves and the world we live in. All in a few hundred years! The 15th century was very eventful: Columbus’s “discovery” of America
and the fall of Constantinople mark the end of the Middle Ages. People in the Middle Ages where super into
war over territory and religion but the Black Plague was far
more efficient than war, killing every third European in six years. Arriving in the Common Era,
let’s take a look where we came from! Our current century is tiny,
and 2013 is barely visible. This is recorded human history. The pyramids were constructed
4,500 years ago, the peak of the Roman Empire was
2,000 years ago, so to the Romans the pyramids were as old
as the Romans are to us today. History starts with writing.
But what happened before that? About 12,000 years ago,
the agricultural revolution took place. Mankind began farming,
which gave rise to the existence of cities
and larger communities. The dominance of the human species over
planet Earth really started here. 90,000 years ago, neanderthals and
humans coexist in Europe. Fun fact: this is roughly the time
period a modern spacecraft would need to reach the nearest star. Homo sapiens, the modern human,
evolved 200,000 years ago. Looking at all of human history, what
we call AD seems pretty small, doesn’t it? 6,000,000 years ago, our ancestors and the modern chimpanzee shared
a common ancestor for the last time, and for 2,750,000 years, stone tools
were all the rage. A mere 65,000,000 years ago, the age of
the dinosaurs ended in an enormous explosion, which paved
the way for the rise of mammals. But the dinosaurs ruled the Earth
for an incredibly long time: over 165,000,000 years! That’s so long that it means a T. rex
that lived 65,000,000 years ago is closer to seeing a
live Miley Cirus concert than to seeing a live stegosaurus! Animal life on this planet
started 600,000,000 years ago: the earliest animals were fish and
other small simple sea creatures, then came insects, then reptiles, and finally, around 200,000,000 years ago, mammals join the party! Life itself began much further back: 3,600,000,000 years ago. Before any animals appeared,
there were 2,400,000,000 years when life consisted only of tiny microbes, countless single-cell bacteria. For 3,000,000,000 years, all life on Earth
was invisible to the naked eye. It’s hard to understand how
single-cell organisms could develop into complex
life forms like fish or sloths. The answer is time, a whole lot of time: 2,400,000,000 years is lot of
time to work with! 4,600,000,000 years ago, the Sun was born
from the remnants of a giant explosion, 60,000,000 years later, Earth formed. In those early years, frequent bombardment
by comets and asteroids supplied the Earth with large oceans
and a moon to send spaceships to. But as far as the whole universe goes,
our Solar system is pretty new. 13,750,000,000 years ago, the
universe was born, and 600,000,000 years later, our own galaxy
formed from billions of stars, but what was before the Big Bang? The truth is, we don’t know that yet,
and maybe we never will. But we gave it some colours so
at least we have that. And there you have it: the past. Now let’s take a look at what
we know about the future. In roughly 1,000,000,000 years, the Sun will be so hot that
life on Earth becomes impossible. The death of the Sun 4,000,000,000 years
later marks the end of the Solar system. OK, so no more Solar system. And what happens after that? A few trillions years from now,
star production will cease and one day the last star in the
universe will die. The universe will turn dark, inhabited only by black holes. Long after the last black hole
has evaporated, our universe reaches its
final stage, something called heat death. Nothing changes anymore, the universe is dead forever. Now you’re feeling some pretty
weird feelings right now, aren’t you? We are too. It’s only natural. The good news is: this is all far, far away. The only time that actually
matters is now! That cute girl you like, ask her out! Time is precious, make it count! Subtitles by the Amara.org community


Reader Comments

  1. No talk about India
    U are an idiot
    Leave YouTube it is running by Indian smart dudes
    U are shame on legacy of Europe and it's pride

  2. Man I love the way you explain science, physics so vastly complex, in a way that prepubescent teenagers could understand it. I hope your channel continues on until the 🌞 burns out

  3. "Nothing matters because we will all die one day, so do what you want, who cares." If your animations weren't so entertaining….

  4. 1:01 that says 20st century, not 20th. Just a heads up about that typo.
    Edit: Actually, it says 20st the whole time. Whoops.

  5. Which girl I’m talking to more then one Sheila mate 😏 and it’s not called cheating at my age it’s called exploring.

  6. Holy shit they actually animate 2 versions!!!! First comes the german one and then they do a totally different one for the english channel!

  7. With quantum tunneling, over a literally infinite period of time, wouldn't you expect heat death to be impossible? At some point, be it a googol years from now, due to random chance and random changes and decreases in entropy, you'd expect there to be changes, even possibly, another big bang?

  8. I love the new version of this video, the colors are brighter and there are more illustrations but there is just something about this version's music that I love so much more than the new one, but maybe it's just because of the massive impact this video and music had on me when I watched it for the first time. And the Miley Cirus reference is pretty iconic I think.

  9. पुराने नोट सिक्के मेरे पास बहुत सारे हैं डॉलर भी खरीदना है तो मेरे मोबाइल पर संपर्क करे8744089005

  10. An idea so keep reading if interested to new concept of the dying universe:-(like it so more people can see so that at least probability of those people getting this would increase.)

    I think a civilization of God like power (4th type civilization or 3rd type civilization!?) Would not create simulation, instead as it knows everything, it will use it to create new ideas and with it , inventions.

    Far back at prehistoric ages there might be a guy who might got this feeling of existential crisis that we might die like this because of new diseases.

    Who can explain that guy that time about us this advanced to tackle them today(diseases)

    Point is that we really don't know what we can do once we become intersteller civilization, who knows what knowledge lies ahead of us.

    We never thought of quantum physics and mechanics until we discovered it.

    Similar fashion applied here,
    We don't have any idea right now about what to do when universe is dead, but to survive they would do something.

    >Now simulation doesn't makes sense because of first thing,
    Who is taking care of continued power forever!

    >If I know how to tackle it by machine and life happy, why should not I use it to stop the universe to collapse again.
    They will have a lot of knowledge and is higher chance to revive it by taking gravity force from planets to their advantage and survive and thrive.

    Who the hell knows what future withholds?

  11. Why does this video assume so much? people developed from life in the sea? micro organisms developing eyes and feet then walked onto land?

  12. Columbus'Discovers' America, I get it. Don't want to upset the Clovis hunter-gatherers 14,000 circa years ago. or the Paleolithic Cro-magnon, approx the same time period or slightly earlier, during the last glacial maximum. Sorry, it was neither these groups, but the Pre-Clovis People, maybe some 12,000 years earlier.

  13. Yes but using the Boltzman theory of random particle assortments creating a complex brain out of thin air when left in a room for infinite time, means maybe the universe is 99.9999% darkness but every once in a while all the particles in the "room" randomly come back together and clack off of each other restarting the universe just like they can all randomly bundle together in a room, given infinite time of course.

  14. 5:22
    When the universe started space appeared
    And time and space are the same thing according to Einstein
    So before the bigbang there was no time
    So there is no "Before" the bigbang

  15. What's when there is not heath death, what's when there are well ordered black holes with enough space between and a well tempereated unity energy universe?

  16. Some kryogeneable and energy efficienct frogoid nor lizardoid species, are sometimes winners and are eventually findable also in sometimes like nearly complete energy neutral states, who can share there ressources with you for a damn long time.

  17. Serious Kurzgesagt why do you say something about the birth of communisme but nothing about capitalisme or democracy.

    you know communisme is an system that is 100% garanteed to become corrupt and will end in tyranny

  18. I love videos about time so much. But I expected life future to be described rather than universe future.. the expectations on further life evolution before the sunlight is gone.

  19. Thanks I asked her out, she said she already asked someone else. Now I want another cute girl, more time and guts to get rejected

  20. I love how WWI is represented by a faded and sinking crown. That war represented the death of the idea of a divine institution, a arbitration of temporal disputes via a spiritual institution. It was the death of chivalry and the “gentlemen’s war”. It was truly the end of almost a thousand years of noble history…..

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