Fashionable Watches

Clock Tower 3 (PS2) Review | [SSFF]

Clock Tower 3 (PS2) Review | [SSFF]


Welcome… to the Stop Skeletons From Fighting Halloween
Spook-tacular! We asked the fans, and the results are in, it’s time to close the casket on one of our favourite horror series, and tackle the last true entry of the Scissorman saga; Clock Tower 3. [dramatic horror music plays] And, wow… Where do I start with Clock Tower 3? This game… This game does some stuff. I think when the dust settled, I can say I really, really enjoyed this game, but it was just impossible to leave it at a blanket recommendation. If I had to be blunt, I would say that there are three things define this game. One, no classic Scissorman, Two, batshit insane cutscenes, and three, magical girl transformations. Clock Tower 3’s greatest achievement is that it is living proof that you can toss all your crazy ideas into a blender, hit go, and have it turn out okay. But, only if that’s what you’re in the mood for. For casual horror fans who enjoy Resident Evil and Dead Space, it might just be too damn weird, but dedicated horror fans, I think will really appreciate this game. And for Clock Tower fans, the sooner you accept that this is a sequel in name only, the sooner you’ll be able to appreciate this wild, wild ride on its own merits. Before we get into the guts of this game, let’s break a few things down. First off, this is technically the fourth Clock Tower game, as well as the first and only entry in the series not created by Human Entertainment. Clock Tower 3 was developed by Sunsoft and co-developed and published by Capcom. Yes, the Resident Evil people helped the Blaster Master and Journey to Silius people make a Clock Tower game. Which was a good thing! Honestly, the previous entry to the series, Clock Tower II: The Struggle Within/Ghost Head was a disaster. Seriously, this game is beyond awful, I can’t even tell you. No, no it is not! If this was Human’s idea of evolving the series, clearly it was time to pass the torch. Luckily, these things sometimes work themselves out. By 2002, Human Entertainment had gone under, and the Clock Tower IP had switched hands. Not to mention, Hifumi Kono, the original series mastermind, was at the time teaming up with Shinji Mikami to make the impressively ambitious 40-button mech simulator, Steel Battalion, also published by Capcom. In a funny twist of fate, Clock Tower 3 and Steel Battalion were both shown at the same E3, but that’s neither here nor there. Our point is, yes, Clock Tower 3 is different, but it was time for the series to get different. And what did we get? Well, for starters, Clock Tower 3 has almost no connection to the other games in terms of gameplay. It features traditional 3D analogue controls instead of the series’ standard point-and-click scheme, or even Resident Evil-style tank controls. Quick camera angle cuts can occasionally have you running in circles, but it didn’t give me too much trouble. Like I said earlier, it does not feature the classic Scissorman, instead a variety of maniac killers, most of which I thought were pretty cool. Most of which; we will talk about these two a little later. The game still centres around you being stalked by maniac killers, but hiding spots and environmental traps are no longer your only defence against them. You can now stun pursuers with splashes of holy water, or use an item to make yourself invisible. These aren’t Get Out of Jail Free cards, though. If you don’t use the opportunity to get away, they’ll be right on your tail again. Not to mention, holy water is also used to remove hexes off locked doors, and jump-start teleporters, and should be used sparingly. In the upper-left hand corner, you’ll notice what looks like a life bar, but it is actually the Panic meter. Taking damage, or even just narrowly avoiding attacks fills the meter. When it maxes out, you enter Panic mode, where your character stumbles wildly and occasionally seizes up with fear. Getting hit at all while in Panic mode results in an instant Game Over, so you really want to avoid panicking. It’s a cool variation on the standard video game life bar, and basically just a more refined system found in the original games. And again to aid you are items like ‘lavender water’ to lower your Panic meter, and ‘sigil stones’ which absorb fatal blows. Now if you think this all sounds completely contrary to what makes Clock Tower good in the first place… You’re not wrong. One of the defining characteristics of the original Clock Tower games was making the player feel helpless. There was a palpable tension in the uncertainty of whether or not your character could endure another confrontation with the killer, or if a hiding spot would work. Part 3 still has hiding spots, in fact the Panic meter plays rather well with these, But the Panic meter working like a life bar, and an inventory of healing items basically obliterates the tension found in the earlier games. But this game implements other modifications to justify these sweeping changes. First off, there’s more to do in Clock Tower 3. Instead of exploring giant mansions or castles, things are structured in a kind of a Monster of the Week format. It’s actually very similar to Eternal Darkness. There’s an overarching story that unfolds as you work through these levels, but each stage has isolated stories with their very own maniac. Solving the mystery of the killer, freeing the spirits of its victims, and then banishing them for good are your tasks. This means much more variety in level environments. Far more items, far more puzzles, and more enemies to contend with. This also means levels are overall smaller, and nowhere near as sprawling as in earlier Clock Tower games. But, it totally works for me. I thought it was a fantastic spin on a formula that was quickly growing stale. The mystery of the bloody, little girl, the blind woman and son, these were small but compelling little stories that I had a lot of fun piecing together. But there are two problems here. One, there aren’t any more of these! Minor spoilers here, but there are only two real Monster of the Week chapters. The rest of the game’s chapters focus on Alyssa and her family, (which is fine, we’ll talk about the A story in a minute) but these little B stories were so enjoyable, that there wasn’t one or two more of these before things settled down on the main story felt like a huge missed opportunity. The other problem is, in what feels like the standard video game necessity to keep difficulty on a constant upwards slope, the later levels feature you constantly pursued, to the point where it’s almost a chore dealing with the killers. Ah, it’s you again. Okay, I’ll be on my way. For example, the castle level doesn’t even feature hiding spots, just rooms the killers won’t follow you into, and plenty of places to replenish your holy water. But this is the very end of the game, so I guess it’s okay. At the top of this review, I mentioned that there are three things that define this game, and I’ve yet to talk about any of them. Well friends, that’s because we’ve saved the best of Clock Tower 3 for last. Clock Tower 3 is charmingly unhinged, and a wild fucking game. It has almost everything to do with its cutscenes. The cinematics in this game are some of the most violent, heartwrenching, headscratching, and cringeworthy that I’ve ever witnessed, and it’s a game that just keeps giving, there are dozens and dozens of cinematic moments. And when it works, it’s a revelation. And when it doesn’t, it’s just mesmerisingly awkward. But really, it all works. A girl mourning the death of her father, a maniac caning an old woman in the face, a madman offering himself up to an evil entity, w-whatever the hell that guy’s doing on that bed, Hey, Clock Tower 3! The silent era of filmmaking called, it said dial it down a bit! This game is all over the map, but regardless of what emotion is guiding a particular scene, Clock Tower 3 cranks it to eleven. That’s what they all have in common, they all come from the same creative muse, the same desire to be as intense as humanly possible. Flat out, this shouldn’t work, but that it does is basically a magic trick. It’s incredibly entertaining. The man behind the magic is Kinji Fukasaku, who at the time was hot off the heels of Battle Royale, and a storied, decades-long career in the Japanese film industry. You’ve most likely heard of this movie, and if not, you might recognise it as the thematic sibling to this monster. It’s hard to overstate what a huge deal Battle Royale was in Japan, and Fukasaku’s presence in this game was likely intended to be a selling point for a Japanese audience. But he really brought a cinematic drive to this game that is rarely seen in this era. Because, while also insane, cinematics are incredibly well made. The craftsmanship in the blocking, editing, nuanced movement, rawness of the violence, are all in the top of its class. We mean this sincerely! Clock Tower 3’s cinematic achievements place it next to greats like Metal Gear Solid and Final Fantasy, and Fukasaku, that is, the late Fukasaku, is to thank. In our review of 1996’s Clock Tower for the
PlayStation 1, we pointed out that video games were still trying to establish themselves as legitimate pieces of entertainment, let alone art. It is a video game-ass video game, sure, but it also had an inspired cinematic flair and wore its respect and admiration for western horror cinema on its sleeve. By 2002, however, games had a legitimate place in pop culture, and improvements in hardware had given way to an enormous money-making industry. Clock Tower 3 had much less to prove and it luxuriated in this fact by charging full force in the opposite direction of its forebearers. Let me tell you about Rood girls. Main character Alyssa Hamilton is from a long lineage of Buffy the Vampire Slayer-like heroes called Rooders, whose power peaks on their 15th birthday. For the record, there is never a direct mention of Artemis, literally the goddess of teen girls and shooting shit with arrows, but anyway. Man, Rooders. I am not making this up. Though, in this scene, the spelling was accidentally
R-U-D-E-R-S, instead of R-O-O-D-E-R-S, so let’s cut the crap. These are the Magical Rude Grrls of legend, here to fight evil and save the day. The game has an impressively involved backstory about the Rude Grrls, and evil spirits and demons, that adds up in a surprising and disturbing way. A little too much of the story is told through exhaustive info dumps, but it all comes together nicely. Let’s cut to the chase here, Clock Tower 3 is a horror game with magical girl transformations. There are boss fights where Alyssa wields a magical bow and arrow and she summons it in basically a
Sailor Moon-style transformation scene. [Sailor Moon theme plays] The final fight actually sees her donning a divine angel-like costume. Goddamn it, I was not expecting this. Contemporary reviewers seemed to gloss over this little tidbit, which I don’t understand. How do you not mention this, because my jaw hit the floor when I first saw this, and I instantly fell in love with this game. It’s one of the greatest and dumbest things I’ve ever seen in a game, and, Clock Tower 3? Our hat is off. Well done. Now, the Magical Rude Grrl sequences are for the boss fights, and I imagine they’ll irritate some players. Alyssa must wear down and tether bosses to objects by powering-up and shooting arrows at them. The longer you charge, the more powerful the hit, and the more likely it’ll pin them. You can either wear down their life bar, or tether them hard enough to summon the divine Rude Grrl comet and end the fight immediately. The problem is, like Leon in Resident Evil 4, Alyssa goes into seige-tank mode and is unable to move when aiming her bow. This can be super frustrating, but after a while you’ll notice that bosses have audio cues for each of their attacks, so you’ll have them downloaded in no time if you pay attention to their tells. The lone exception being the final boss, which was an incredible pain. Overall, the boss fights aren’t perfect, but they worked well enough for me. The most glaring knock against Clock Tower 3 are the Scissor Siblings. Specifically, this game’s interpretation of the Scissorman. It’s a huge mistake; lazy and misguided fan service of the worst kind. Now, on a surface level, having Scissorman in this game at all is a reference newcomers won’t get, and even more damning, it being such a radically different interpretation is a poke in the eye to hardcore fans. If you go deeper, you realise this is a betrayal of the philosophical foundation of the character, according to series creator Hifumi Kono. Kono has said in multiple interviews that scissors as a murder weapon was a very deliberate choice. “The pain you feel with a knife or a gun is instantaneous, but with scissors you feel the blades closing in, coming against your flesh, taking their sweet time to finish the act. What I really wanted to express was the duration of pain.” Scissorman was intentionally designed to be plodding and tortuous. Death by scissors is a metaphor for the character himself. There’s also a banality to Scissorman. His mask and cloak make him anonymous, he could be anybody. Scissors themselves are a common object that can be found anywhere. In contrast, the Harlequin twins are loud, literal clowns. GAME: “Chop chop, chop chop! Chop chop, chop chop!” Separating the characters into two doesn’t really serve a purpose in the context of a Scissorman nod. While the game does play a little bit with duality in the presence of mirrored realities in the hospital level, it’s not enough to save this mistake. They could’ve just been “The Twins”, juggling swords like circus performers. They didn’t need to do *this*. Clock Tower 3 has no shortage of creative ideas, not to mention alters just about every other page of the
Clock Tower playbook. Why did they feel that including Scissorman was necessary? And furthermore, it doesn’t make sense to bury your Scissor-people to the second-last chapter of the game. Why not just go with the Resident Evil 4 route and make a quick joke of it? Our take? When it comes to fan service, you never go full
Scissor Siblings. Lastly, some of the music in this game is awful. The music that plays while you’re in chase is fine, but the more subdued music that plays while exploring levels is occasionally downright maddening. Not because they’re poorly written, but because they’re incredibly short. For most of these songs, the average length is at most a minute long, meaning you are subjected to these songs dozens and dozens of times. In the first chapter, a great rendition of a Chopin piece abruptly stops just as it moves onto the next movement, only to start over again. The graveyard level is maybe the worst because of a piercing, droning tone, that at first is quite unsettling, but after just a few minutes, made me want to stab myself in the ears. I cannot remember the last time a game had me running for the mute button over and over again. In the end, Clock Tower 3 stands apart not just from other Clock Tower games, but games in general! It won’t be everyone’s cup of tea, but I personally put it up there with Ill Bleed and Monster Party as a joyously bizarre horror cult gem. It may be too weird for casual horror fans, and too different for hardcore Clock Tower fans, but I had a blast playing this game and now that I’ve presented my case, I can say that Clock Tower 3 comes recommended. Thanks for watching! If you wanna learn more about Clock Tower, check out our comprehensive review of the PlayStation game on the right. Or, check out our playthrough of Clock Tower II: The Struggle Within. We played the whole game, and… ..wow. That game. That’s the video on the left. And hey, we’ve been reviewing horror games for years! Click in the middle for our giant, official Horror and Halloween playlist! Stop Skeletons From Fighting is a Patreon-supported show, and wouldn’t be possible without every single one of these fine people here. If you’d like to support the show also, click the Patreon logo and pledge what you can! Or just make sure you like, comment, and subscribe, all that jazz. We’ve got more Halloween videos coming for 2016, so stay tuned. Thanks again for watching, and we’ll see you again real soon.


Reader Comments

  1. Thinking about obscure horror games – how about 2006 PS2 Rule of Rose? From what I heard sounds like something you guys would dig.

  2. I really enjoy the crazy story of the game, but holy christ is the combat slow and awkward and takes forever and beluigueh

    really drags the game down for me

  3. Oh wow this guy still exists. Glad you ditched the whole retroware/happy video game nerd thing, was not doing you any favors. These videos are much more watchable/tolerable.

  4. I enjoyed The Struggle Within more than CT3, despite its flaws. The gameplay was too different from the previous titles. I hated the killer constantly being on your tail. I often just ended up completing the objectives with them chasing after me, because they just kept appearing. Their appearances and avoiding them was not fun, like in the earlier titles. The story was also a little boring. I liked the stories of the ghosts from the first two chapters, but after that, it became a lot less interesting.

  5. CT2/Ghost Head is a good game. Human made what was possible to do when they we're almost going bankrupt, and it's still a ps1 game, being compared to a PS2 game with a bigger budget.

  6. I know I'm totally exaggerating but all you could say is one word: japanese games. Crazy mindfucks are pretty much a standard for japanese media.

  7. Best part about this game was definitely the cutscenes. It's the only thing that's stuck with me all these years later. That and the repeated lines from the murderers.

  8. Ps2 was the golden era of the Survival horror, Silent hill 2-4, shattered memories and origins, RE Code Veronica, RE4, Dead Aim, Outbreak 1-2, Siren, Obscure, Rule of Rose, Haunting Ground, Clock Tower 3, Kuon, Fatal Frame, Ghost Hunter, Extermination, Cold Fear, The Thing, Michigan Report From Hell, Evil Dead, Echo Night Beyond, Dissaster Report, Man Hunt, you name it!!

  9. I love the idea of a panic meter and what happens once it's filled. I'm surprised games haven't copied that since then.

  10. This is the clock tower game that I have the most mix feeling about that I have played to date. And I hate clock tower games(I player everyone of them). On the one hand you turn into a fucking magical girl and shoot magical fucking arrow as acid fucking sparying assholes.On the other the game is so cheesy you could pass it off as a chicago deep dish pizza

  11. Wow. This game, Haunting Ground, and Rule of Rose always would bleed together for me. But now that I've seen how RAD Clock Tower 3 is, and how underwhelming Rule of Rose is, I can safely say they're completely different. As for haunting ground…I dunno, a game where a scantily clad gal and her dog, That Dog, run around get spooked sounds like some lame parody. However, I can respect it for its significance with RE4's development. I can't wait for your video on that, and your next video in general.
    Stay rad.

  12. don't know much about Clock Tower 1, 2 ,3 and 4?
    I'm already loving the whole series and really i could careless if it isn't that scary because it doesn't involve Scissor man which i will say.

    We get that "Scissor Man" main villain of the series.

    But killing him off in chapter 3 & 4? Is a better approach, the reason why?

    Take a look at all 3 series of Mega Man, It's very understandable because in Mega Man 2?

    We had no idea dr. wily was an "ALIEN!!" type creature.

    That right there would've been mind blown if they went with that idea…

    but no, when you defeat him? no…. he's a human…
    (another reason to kill off the real suspense of the story)

    Mega Man 3? he is barely mentioned at all which killed the suspense made the whole story plot boring….
    -_-

    The idea for building up on new boss story arc? Would've been a chance to make a better mega man story to keep the fans wanting more.

    So maybe it's time for a new change on clock tower series.

  13. I’ve only played Clock Tower 2 when I was younger, and to me, that was such a GREAT horror game. I loved the concept of that game. This game, Clock Tower 3 looks awesome too though. I’m into “survival horror” type games. Anyway. You earned yourself a new subscriber. Great work, and content man!

  14. It is true that the music at the graveyard went from creepy to annoying very quickly. But I have to say something in defense to the music in the first level. The shortend Chopin song is actually a neat hint towards the victim May, who is actually playing the song.

    Warning: Spoilers coming for who hasn't played the game

    Because if you get the story behind May and her family and then notice the shortened version she plays it makes so much more sense, that she is actually playing the background music. After all it was the song she wanted to play to win the piano compitition, so she will be casted in a radio show and her father could hear her on christmas, while he was away at the frontlines. But then she made a mistake at the compitition ( the part where she appruptly ends the songs to start it over again) and lost. At the same evening she got killed by Sledgehammer and plays the song again and again to play the song without the mistake so her father can hear her. So I couldn't be annoyed by the background music in the first chapter (and not only because I like Chopin's work) because of this little hint.

  15. holy smokes!!! never knew this was a magical girl game!!!!! i always thought it was a shit tank control game that bombed back in the day
    thanks to this review i am actually getting this, !!!!

  16. For those who just watched this and wants to start playing it, I can only suggest one thing. SAVE YOUR SPECIAL ARROWS FOR THE FINAL BOSS. Seriously, it'll help you tremendously.
    Thank you for your time. 😭
    (This is coming from someone who beaten the final boss over 30 minutes because of wasting special arrows)

  17. I always thought the Piano playing on the first level while you explored abruptly stopped because it was the little girl fudging the piece and throwing a fit, not that it just abruptly stopped an started again. In the cut scene where you get to see her, doesn't she stop and cry then take a breath and start again? It would explain why you hear that sharp stop so many times. She's practicing, forever stuck in the limbo of failure and death. Only when she is avenged and her killer killed, was she able to finish the piece.

  18. Beat two bosses so far, all I knew about the series was about the creepy scissorman, didn't expect it to be a Magical Girl anime lol
    Also, is it just me or is the acting/mocap so hilariously overdone in japanese stuff? Maybe they have a background in theater or something, cus they do these super quick, exaggerated but clear movements. Primarily thinking of the introduction of Dennis, that was super bizarre but I'd be lying if I said I didn't find it entertaining.

  19. I picked this game up recently and it is definitely deserving of it's hidden gem status. It has an illbleed feel to it. The difference being that there's fixed cameras in this game and about 90 percent of the game if not more feels like you're running away. Depending on what type of gamer you are that is either a good or bad thing. It actually made the game scarier at times to me and I'm not usually afraid of games. With that said Eriko would beat the blood out of Alyssa. I am about 3/4 through this game I think. I beat the 3rd boss who I found completely obnoxious because he had an easy pattern to some degree but I didn't realize you have to maneuver yourself around a bit when he throws the big ninja star weapon. So it took me about 8 tries to beat him. Illbleed is the better game but illbleed is also overpriced at the moment online. If any of you want illbleed you're either going to have to pay ridiculous price or burn a copy on cd-r. Clock Tower 3 is still affordable for a complete copy as of right now as I post this comment. I think it sells between 20-30 bucks for complete copy on ebay.

  20. really enjoyed it back in the day specially Haunting ground. shame they havnt tried to make similar games nowadays

  21. "and thats when I instantly fell in love with this game" You used to talk shit about this game in 2011. lol. good video anyway.

  22. 9:55 >>
    I'm going to take a shot in the dark and guess that the reason contemporary reviewers didn't mention the insanity is because they never saw it. Some reviewers don't care to play more than an hour before writing up their drivel.
    We all know this now

  23. This game is actually one of my all time favourite games. Its crazy ahead of its time with ideas in the game that are so inventive. I think its a masterpiece but few people know about it.

  24. When you said Clocktower 3 had other ways to scare people, you reminded me of Nitro Rad's Silent Hill 4 review, he said it wasn't like the first three, but had other terrifying motives.

  25. I always really liked this game. Still love the boss music and how it's presented as their years sentenced being the life bars, with you rendering judgement.
    Edit: Also on the piano piece in the first stage, I can understand your point, however I'm a bit forgiving on it because there's a story based reason as to why it's repeating.
    I know this comment is two years late, but just found it.

  26. I can agree for the most part about the Scissorman thing, though splashing the holy water on him and hearing his reaction was….just great.

  27. I first heard of this game from a PSM ad when I was a kid, completely forgot about it for a decade or so, decided to watch a bit of a Let's Play, and completely lost my shit when I first saw the Magical Girl stuff.
    This game has so much irony value, and I seriously want a copy for myself.

  28. I bought this back in the day because I was big into survival horror and the Battle Royale movie. It was shit (at least I thought so back then. I've not played it since).

  29. Glad I found your review on this game. I'm surprised you gave Clock Tower 3 such a fair review. Most players (even hardcore enthusiasts of the genre) tend to be critical of it. Your review was not only fair, but accurate and funny. I love this game but the criticism of it makes me feel like I should keep it a secret guilty pleasure lol. The only things that bothered be was the 'magical girl' angle before a boss fight and the final cutscene/movie at the end of the game – I found it painfully cliché and hard to watch or listen to. I also wished the developers gave the game more replay value. Overall I love this game because although it's horror, it stands out because it seems to bend the rules and mix various things into it. My favorite things about the game are the family relationships, hiding/evading more than fighting, and the different locations Alyssa is taken to. My favorite location was the castle (I'm a sucker for castles and mansions in games lol) and my least favorite location was the sewers/utility tunnels where you first encounter Chopper. Anyway, I found this video by accident and I'm so pleased with your fair review and that you enjoy/understand that it's purposely different from other games in the genre, so I'm subscribing to you. You may also review more games I like but are sadly under-rated so I'll keep a look out for those. You seem to be a horror fan like me too. Hence one reason for my youtube name lol.

  30. The first clock tower from Japan had the panic function but instead of items you just sat down on the ground to calm down. Jennifer’s picture backgrounds would go from red, orange, yellow or blue to show that. If panicked she would trip a lot and couldn’t fight off the scissorman, similar to this game. The only thing they sort of kept.

  31. By comparison to earlier games, you might feel less helpless due to having ways to protect yourself (although very few) and heal up (still very few), but it in no way makes a difference for someone like me who has never played those previous games. I felt plenty helpless, thank you very much.

    You can't do much to stop the killers chasing you from… well, chasing you. You can stun them, run off and hide, but they will always come back. Often when you're in the middle of something, forcing you to enter your own real-world "panic mode" and try desperately to escape the room you're in, trying to recall just where the nearest hiding spot was.

    The game clearly went downhill towards the end, but I still enjoyed it enough to finish and while it was a tad bit odd and less "creepy" by that point, it was at least an enjoyable time.

    Also I'm totally with you on the magical girl transformation stuff. Finding out THAT'S how you dealt with the killers was the best god damned surprise ever and the jaws of my brother and I hit the freaking floor when it happened. Pretty quickly annihilated the first boss, too, which I didn't expect I would do so well at since my brother failed it the first time. Charging up your arrows and locking the boss into place really gives you an edge over them.

  32. The cutscenes are fun but the gameplay is in my opinion ghost head bad, stun locking, pointless hiding places and misguided boss fights

  33. Man I loved this game so much. And omg i knew they used real people for motion capturing. And also YOU are fucking hot!!!!! I would kiss you if i ever had a clock tower 3 datenight. Your voice is so soothing

  34. Mr. Fukasaku directed one of my favorite films in 1962, Gyangu tai G-men along with Outlaw Killers: Three Mad Dog Brothers in '72.

    Nice to see the Clock Tower series getting some love, feel it doesn't get nearly enough appreciation. As much as I enjoyed the first game, definitely loved the 3rd more so.

  35. I always watch this guy Speedwerd speedrun this game. He’s always a good watch. That’s how I first found out about this game

  36. The hammer guy murdering a 5 year old english girl with a sledge hammer was quite disturbing for me compared to most everything i ever seen in games

  37. I absolutely loved this game at the time it came out.
    PS2 is one of my all time favorite systems for these, it hosts some of the best horror games ever created.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *